cooperate with the government, and called for new communist policies. Long live the worldwide socialist revolution! In this situation, so full of dangers and promises, the Bolsheviks, who had directed the internationalist opposition to the war, were themselves in almost complete confusion at that moment, politically disorientated. Pravda, the official organ of the party, openly adopted a defencist position on the war: Our slogan is not the meaningless down with war. The insurrection resulted in a situation of dual power. The official power was the bourgeois Provisional Government, initially lead by the liberals but which later gained a more socialist hue under the direction of Kerensky. For all these apologists for the capitalist order, including the anarchists, whatever their apparent disagreements, it is a question of showing that Lenin and the Bolsheviks were a band of power-hungry fanatics who did everything they could to usurp the democratic acquisitions of the February. The victorious insurrection of October 1917 validates Lenins view. On the contrary they were based on a comprehension of the real movement which was unfolding in the class at each moment, on the capacity to give a voice and direction to the most radical elements within the proletariat. For Lenin, as for all the authentic internationalists then, the international revolution integrity and honesty essay was not just a pious wish but a concrete perspective developed from the international proletarian revolt against the war - the strikes in Britain and Germany, the political demonstrations, the mutinies and fraternisations. On the other hand effective power already lay, as was well understood, in the hands of the soviets of workers and soldiers deputies.
Some believe he based this on Trotsky's Theory of Permanent Revolution. Manifestation of war veterans and invalids in Petrograd on Apr 17 1917 against Lenin arrival. Lenins mastery of the marxist method, seeing beyond the surface and appearances of events, allowed him in company with the best elements of the party, to discern the real dynamic of the movement which was unfolding before their eyes and to meet the profound desires. This perspective was going to be completely confirmed after the October insurrection by the extension of the revolutionary wave to Italy, Hungary, Austria and above all Germany. But the working class letters for application had not yet acquired the necessary political maturity to take all the power.